Antibiotics Consumption Control To Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance

Surabaya, 11 February 2017 – PT Pfizer Indonesia (Pfizer) held the Pfizer Press Circle (PPC), an educative capacity building forum initiated by the company in 2009 to help journalists (health and humanities journalists) understand and keep them updated with the latest health issues through sharing sessions and discussions with health experts in their respective fields. Today’s PPC discussion will cover “Antibiotics Consumption Control to Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance.” Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) is one of the health issues that became attention of all healthcare stakeholders worldwide. Controlled consumption of antibiotics in accordance with the medical prescription may avoid and reduce the probability of multi-resistant bacteria infection, but uncontrolled consumption of antibiotics – which often violates the proper medical suggestions – may lead to a significant increase of Antimicrobial Resistance.

According to World Health Organization (WHO), there are 480.000 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases in the world . These multi-resistant bacteria have caused approximately 700,000 deaths per year. “Review on Antimicrobial Resistance” estimated that AMR can kill up to 10 million people every year by 2050. The number of death caused by AMR exceeds the one caused by cancer, which is 8.2 million deaths per year which is predicted to lead to global loss worth $ 100 trillion. This suggests that antimicrobial resistance has indeed become a big problem that needs to be resolved and we need to improve people’s awareness on antibiotic resistance.

Chairman of Antimicrobial Resistance Control Committee within Indonesia’s Ministry of Health, Hari Paraton, MD., Sp.OG(K) stated, “uncontrolled consumption of antibiotics often violates proper medical prescription (e.g abusing antibiotics, consuming inappropriate dose within a certain amount of time) and this may lead to antimicrobial resistance. This is further encouraged as people have easy access to antibiotics at public pharmacies, kiosks, and drugstores without any medical prescriptions made by a doctor. Antibiotics should not be sold freely, and a purchase should only be allowed based on a legit medical prescription. People make bad habits of keeping antibiotics at home and sharing them to family members, neighbors, or friends. This can lead to antibiotic resistance. ”

Hari Paraton, MD., Sp.OG(K) further explained that, “Antibiotic is not a cure-all for any disease. Antibiotic should only be consumed by a patient suffering from diseases caused by bacterial infection. Remember, antibiotic is consumed to cure bacterial infection; it is not consumed to prevent bacterial infection nor it is a cure for viral infection . The Ministry of Health has committed to control AMR in the country. The government formed Antimicrobial Resistance Control Committee (KPRA) in 2014 and it has been actively carrying out various programs to control antimicrobial resistances in more than 144 national and regional hospitals as well as Health Centers (Puskesmas) in 5 provinces as a pilot project in East Java. However, we need to involve more educational institutions, community organizations, professional organizations, pharmaceutical companies, and health offices if we ever hope to win this fight.”

Prof. Usman Hadi, MD., PhD., Sp.PD-KPTI as Tropico-Infectiologist Consultant who is also a Head Division of Tropical and Infectious Diseases, Depatment of Internal Medicine, dr. Soetomo Hospital – Airlangga University’s Faculty of Medicine stated that, “Infectious disease is one of health issues that needs to be quickly addressed, particularly in tropical developing countries e.g. Indonesia. Antibiotic is widely used to treat infections caused by bacteria. Antibiotic is deemed very important in the medical world as it has cured different types of infection. However, keep in mind that excessive use of antibiotics will surely lead to various health problems and a global threat. The bad side of antimicrobial resistance includes high morbidity and mortality rate as well as negative impacts on economy and social life.”

Bacteria may become resistant due to uncontrolled consumption of antibiotics and improper standard precautionary actions at many health facilities. Several researches revealed that 40-62% antibiotics are used improperly to cure diseases that actually do not need antibiotics . Prof. Usman Hadi, MD., PhD., Sp.PD-KPTI further explained that according to a research conducted in 2013 by WHO and KPRA, at least 6 Teaching Hospitals in Indonesia have been identified as the biggest source of ESBL (Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase) with 40-50% resistance towards the 3rd and 4th generation Cephalosporin.”

At first, bacterial resistance goes as far as hospital walls, but bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP), Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli gradually are spreading to public areas as well. “Please be informed that antibiotics consumption should be under doctor’s supervision and should follow proper medical prescription because doctors prescribe antibiotics to patients based on careful assessment of each individual’s antimicrobial resistance. Consuming appropriate dose of antibiotics as well as adhering to regulations during treatments are very important to make sure that the it does not lead to any kind of resistance, “Prof. Usman Hadi, MD., PhD., Sp.PD-KPTI added.

Antimicrobial resistance is a very complicated issue that needs to be solved together because it is multidimensional, multifactor, and involves a lot of stakeholders. Solving the issue at hand is not particularly an easy task as it involves not only doctors and patients, but also involves pharmaceutical industries, hospitals, business interest of many parties, and people’s awareness.

Widyaretna Buenastuti as Public Affairs & Communication Director of PT Pfizer Indonesia said, “Our vision is to ‘lead by innovation’ and Pfizer is committed to carry out activities for healthier Indonesia. Pfizer cares and supports the campaign to control antibiotic consumption to prevent antimicrobial resistance by holding Pfizer Press Circle. PPC features prominent health experts and invites journalists to a discussion to talk about the importance of improving awareness of antimicrobial resistance and the consuming antibiotic in accordance with the proper medical prescription. This is hoped to educate the public that antibiotics must be consumed within the right dose to prevent antimicrobial resistance, and they have to avoid buying or consuming antibiotics without doctor’s prescription.

Widyaretna Buenastuti further explained that, “As a prominent provider of anti-infection and antifungal medicines, Pfizer is committed to find new ways to improve anti-infection medicines in the world by offering access to more than 60 anti-infection and antifungal medicines to patients and health professionals. Within the past few years, Pfizer has consistently partnered with various institutions to keep on improving people’s awareness on antibiotic treatment programs for the purpose of reducing antibiotic resistance rate. Pfizer is a primary signatory and negotiator of the Davos Declaration (January 2016) on antimicrobial resistance. Alongside twelve other key industry players (September 2016), Pfizer developed a new roadmap outlining four commitments the industry would deliver by 2020.”

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